EM-1110-2-2502 Retaining and Flood Walls
|Links:||PDF, USACE Publications|
|Subjects:||Flood control, Reinforced concrete, Retaining walls, Structures|
|Size:||448 pages, 5.66 MB|
This manual provides guidance for the safe design and economical construction of retaining and flood walls. It is intended primarily for retaining walls which will be subjected to hydraulic loadings such as flowing water, submergence, wave action, and spray, exposure to chemically contaminated atmosphere, and/or severe climatic conditions. For the design of retaining walls which will not be subjected to hydraulic loadings or severe environmental conditions as described above, TM 5-818-1 may be used for computing the loadings and evaluating the stability of the structure.
Types of Walls. This manual presents design guidance for retaining walls and inland and coastal flood walls. Retaining walls are defined as any wall that restrains material to maintain a difference in elevation. A flood wall is defined as any wall having as its principal function the prevention of flooding of adjacent land.
Not specifically covered in this manual are seawalls which are defined as structures separating land and water areas, primarily designed to prevent erosion and other damage due to wave action. They are frequently built at the edge of the water, but can be built inland to withstand periods of high water. Seawalls are generally characterized by a massive cross section and a seaward face shaped to dissipate wave energy.
Coastal flood walls, however, are generally located landward of the normal high water line so that they are inundated only by hurricane or other surge tide and have the smooth-faced cantilever stems shown in this manual.
Types of Foundations. This manual describes procedures for the design of retaining and flood walls on shallow foundations, i.e., bearing directly on rock or soil. The substructure design of pile-founded walls is not included, but is covered in EM 1110-2-2906.
Flood Wall Guidance. A flood wall is treated as a special case of a retaining wall. Unless specifically noted, the guidance herein applies to both retaining and flood walls.
Geotechnical and Structural Aspects. Both geotechnical and structural aspects of wall design are included. Coordination between geotechnical engineers, structural engineers, and geologists in the design of retaining and flood walls is essential.